Padmashree College
The British College

Climate Change and World Debate

Article 08 Nov 2022 371 0

climate change

The term climate change refers to an increase in the temperature of the earth's surface due to human activities. which shows changes in the environment. For example, events such as rainfall, changes in time, dryness in some places, and heavy rains in some places may be due to climate change. But these things also happen due to natural causes.

The effects of climate change have been badly compounded by a combination of various factors. These factors are — deforestation and forest degradation due to overexploitation of natural resources, use of unsustainable farming systems, haphazardly built infrastructure, rapid urbanization; High growth in poverty, pollution and energy demand. Nepal's slow human development index rate and complex topography have also had a negative impact on the disaster preparedness caused by climate change. Current and projected impacts of climate change affect various sectors of the economy. Forests and biodiversity are more likely to be affected. Likewise, there is an impact on the agricultural sector, food security, water and energy, health and urban/rural infrastructure construction. Such changes will also increase natural disasters caused by climate. Different gender, caste and tribal groups are also very affected by this change.

The change that is due to natural causes or the change in weather cannot be called climate change. Current climate change is an increased environmental impact due to human activities. Because of this, there was a change in the pattern of rain. Natural calamities such as landslides or floods have intensified. If this happens, it can be called climate change. Due to human activities, the temperature of the earth has increased. The main thing is the increase in temperature. Due to human activities, the surface temperature of the earth is increasing. If there is an effect on the climate due to that increase in temperature, then that is the effect of climate change. The current situation is the effect of climate change.

Comparing the temperature with the past, the data shows that in Nepal, it has increased more towards the mountains than the plains. As the temperature increases in this way, its effect has been on the pattern of rainfall in Nepal. At first it was raining. It would have been raining for weeks. This is not the case now. But the amount of water that falls during the year is the same amount of water. It has not decreased. Earlier, the water was distributed everywhere, but now it is more concentrated in a certain place. Elsewhere there is less. As a result, there is a problem of drought.

As the mountains began to heat up, the snow began to melt faster than usual and the amount of water in the glaciers also began to increase. After too much water, the pond could not hold and the banks of the pond broke and large floods started. This is one thing that troubles the people of the lower coastal areas. Also, those glaciers we cannot easily go and inspect. They are in a very difficult place. When will these lakes break? What is the situation? It should be monitored. However, there is no situation where people can go. How is that lake increasing by using various methods of science in such a situation? When is it likely to break? etc. should be inquired about.

Climate Debate in the world:

In 1972, the United Nations organized the world's first international environmental conference in Stockholm, Sweden. 119 countries participating in the conference started the United Nations Environment Program based on the principle of 'One Earth'. Presented the Stockholm Declaration in the direction of environmental protection. The same conference approved the celebration of World Environment Day on June 5.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. The report presented by the IPCC provided a scientific basis for international negotiations and treaties. It also developed a sound approach to climate change risk mitigation. Two years later, the IPCC presented its first assessment report. In the report, it is mentioned that due to the emission caused by human activities, the increase of greenhouse gases has affected the global climate. For this reason, the IPCC called for a second climate conference.

In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil. The conference is known as the Rio Summit or the Earth Summit. At that time, a comprehensive treaty was agreed to protect the environment. The agreement is called the United Nations Framework Convention (UNFCCC). The nations that signed the Convention in 1994 were called 'Parties'. A meeting of the Conference of Parties (COP) is scheduled to be held every year to develop an approach to climate change.

The first COP conference held in Berlin, the capital of Germany in 1995, was chaired by then-German Environment Minister Angela Merkel. The background to Kyoto Protocol was created to strengthen the commitments made by participating nations in Berlin. Its secretariat moved to Geneva the following year. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third COP Conference held on December 11, 1997. It is the first global treaty to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

A significant achievement was achieved at the Sixth Conference of Cope. At that time, as a result of a broad political consensus among the governments of all member states, a governing manual was agreed upon in the context of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997.

The European Union launched emissions trading in January 2005. The world's first and largest emissions trading scheme was launched as a key pillar of the Union's climate policy. Under the plan, establishments responsible for half of the carbon dioxide emissions in the Union were regulated.

The 13th COP Conference adopted the Bali Action Plan to address climate change. The program was divided into five main sections namely Common Approach, Mitigation, Adaptation, Technology, and Finance. The Copenhagen Accord was adopted at the 15th COP conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Developed countries pledged to provide US$30 billion in financial aid for the period 2010 to 2012.

The historic Paris Agreement was signed at the 21st Conference held in December 2015 in Paris, the capital of France. At the conference, 196 parties agreed to reduce carbon emissions and invest in sustainable development to combat climate change. The Paris Agreement for the first time brought nations together on the basis of historical, present, and future responsibilities.

On September 23, 2019, a summit was held in New York under the chairmanship of UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres to accelerate efforts to implement the Paris Agreement. Under the Paris Agreement, each country pledged to increase coordinated efforts on climate change.

The Paris climate agreement aimed to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius by the end of this century compared to pre-industrial levels. As the temperature of the earth is increasing alarmingly, it is impossible to limit it to less than 1.5 Celsius, some nations even expressed dissatisfaction at the 26th conference held in Glasgow, Scotland recently. However, the plan to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees by 2030 is considered an achievement of the conference.

Nearly 200 countries have signed a new agreement to stop the climate crisis. It is mentioned in the agreement to reduce emissions at a rapid pace and to provide more assistance to developing countries to deal with the effects of climate change. The conference also raised the issue of reducing the use of coal, which is responsible for excessive greenhouse gas emissions.

It was also agreed at the conference that each country should submit additional policies on climate to the United Nations within five years and that the work done on the global goal of climate adaptation should be completed within two years.

What is COP?

COP is an abbreviation for Conference of Parties (COP). It is a conference of members included in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change i.e. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). UNFCCC is a global agreement, which was signed in 1992. 197 countries have signed the agreement.

COP is an abbreviation for Conference of Parties (COP). It is a conference of members included in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change i.e. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). UNFCCC is a global agreement, which was signed in 1992. 197 countries have signed the agreement.

Climate change is the variation in the temperature and rainfall occurring on the earth's surface and over time. Human pollution and the emission of hot harmful gases are considered to be the main causes of climate change. Climate change is a continuous process and climate change has been occurring since the origin of the earth (4.6 billion years) till today.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held from 3 to 14 June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This conference is known as the Rio Summit or the First Earth Summit.

172 countries participated in the Rio Earth Summit. In this conference, a treaty was agreed upon to protect the environment, which is called 'United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC.

UNFCCC was formed to stabilize the emission of greenhouse gases and protect the earth from the threat of climate change. At present, the number of member countries in the UNFCCC is 197.


At the Rio Earth Summit, it was decided that the member states of the UNFCCC would meet every year for a conference and to discuss climate-related concerns and action plans. This conference was named the Conference of the Parties (COP or COP).

The first Coop i.e. Cope-1 was organized from 28 March to 7 April 1995 in Berlin, Germany.

UNFCCC COP till 2022:

Edition Year Event Venue
COP-1 1995 Berlin, Germany
COP-2 1996 Geneva, Switzerland
COP-3 1997 Kyoto, Japan
COP-4 1998 Buenos Aires, Argentina
COP-5 1999 Bonn, Germany
COP-6 2000 The Hague, Netherlands
COP-6 2001 Bonn, Germany
COP-7 2001 Marrakech, Morocco
COP-8 2002 New Delhi, India
COP-9 2003 Milan, Italy
COP-10 2004 Buenos Aires, Argentina
COP-11 2005 Montreal, Canada
COP-12 2006 Nairobi, Kenya
COP-13 2007 Bali, Indonesia
COP-14 2008 Poznan, Poland
COP-15 2009 Copenhagen, Denmark
COP-16 2010 Cancun, Mexico
COP-17 2011 Durban, South Africa
COP-18 2012 Doha, Qatar
COP-19 2013 Warsaw, Poland
COP-20 2014 Lima, Peru
COP-21 2015 Paris, France
COP-22 2016 Marrakech, Morocco
COP-23 2017 Bonn, Germany
COP-24 2018 Katowice, Poland
COP-25 2019 Madrid, Spain
COP (Postponed) 2020 postponed due to covid
COP-26 2021 Glasgow, Scotland
COP -27 2022 Egypt