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Nepal Census 2078 Result Result in Full Details

Article 24 Mar 2023 59824 1

National Census 2021

Nepal Census (Janagadana) 2078 Result in Full Details

In Nepal, the census is an important process of systematically collecting demographic, social, and economic details of individuals and families living within the defined borders of the country at a certain time. This data is then used in planning, public policy formulation, and decision-making processes to ensure overall development. Here's why census-taking in Nepal is important and a brief history of census in Nepal.

Census-taking is crucial for Nepal's development and decision-making processes. It ensures that the data collected is accurate and useful for planning and policy-making. Nepal has been conducting census-taking for over a century now, and it has evolved to become more scientific and modern in its approach. With the recent National Census of 2078 BS, Nepal has taken a step forward in ensuring that no one is left out in the Census process.

Importance of Census in Nepal

The census is important for Nepal as it provides accurate details of the population size, composition, growth, and distribution, along with social, economic, and demographic indicators that present a true picture of the country. The data collected is used for determining the constituencies, state restructuring, and decentralization-related plans, policies, and programs. Census-taking also ensures that no one is left out and that no one is repeated in the Census process.

Brief History of Census in Nepal

Census work in Nepal started in 1968 BS (1911 AD), and since then, census-taking has been conducted almost every ten years. The first and second census was conducted to prepare a list of owners, servants, and their servants. The census conducted up to 1998 BS was limited to the general mood count, while the census conducted from 2009/11 BS (1952/54 AD) was conducted using international methods and standards, and it added other features of the population, making it more modern and scientific.

After the establishment of the Central Statistics Department in 2015 BS, all censuses have been conducted by this department. In 2078 BS (2022 AD), the National Census was conducted with the motto of "My Census - My Participation." This was the twelfth census of Nepal and the first one after the federal system was established, according to the constitution of Nepal, which was released in 2072 BS (2015 AD).

Summary of Nepal Sensus 2078 Result

1) Population:

According to National Census 2078 (Census Reference Day 2078 on November 9), the population of Nepal is 2,91,64,578, of which the number of males is 1,42,53,551 (48.98 percent) and the number of females is 1,49,11. 027 (51.02 percent).

According to this the sex ratio (Sex Ratio) i.e. the number of men per 100 women is 95.59. In the year 2068, the total population was 2,64,94,504 and the sex ratio was 94.16.


Year 2068

Year 2078

Total Population



Male Population



Female Population



Other Gender Population



% of Other Gender Population



Province with Highest %



Province with Lowest %



Sex Ratio



2) Other gender population:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, the population of other genders (sexual and sexual minorities) was found to be 2,928 out of the total population, which is 0.01 percent of the total population. Among the total other sexes, Bagmati Province has the highest percentage of 32.7 percent and Karnali Province has the lowest percentage of 2.8 percent.

3) Average annual population growth rate:

The average annual population growth rate of the census period is 0.92 percent, which was 1.35 percent per year according to the 2068 census. The district with the highest annual average population growth rate is Bhaktapur (3.35 percent) and the lowest annual average population growth rate is Ramechhap district (-1.67 percent).

4) Population density:

According to the results of the census, the population density (population per square kilometer of area) is 198 people per square kilometer, which was only 180 in 2068. According to the geographical area, the highest population density is 460 people per square kilometer in the Terai region and the lowest is 34 people per square kilometer in the Himalayan region. The highest population density is in Kathmandu district (5169 people per square kilometer) and the lowest in Manang district (3 people per square kilometer).

5) Population by broad age group:

  According to the census, 61.96 percent of the total population is in the age group of 15 to 59 years. In the year 2068, the population of this age group was only 56.96 percent. At present, the population aged 14 years or less and 60 years or older are 27.83 percent and 10.21 percent, respectively.

6) Number of households:

According to the last census of 2068, there were 54,27,302 families, and now the number has increased by 23 percent to 66,66,937. Out of which there are 66,60,841 individual families and 6,096 institutional families.

7) Average household size:

In the year 2078, there were 4.37 members per family, which was 4.88 in the year 2068. Looking at the geographical area, in 2078 there were 4.33 members per family in the Himalayan region, 3.99 in the hills and 4.73 in the Terai region. The family size is highest in Rautahat district (5.94) and lowest (3.49) in Gorkha and Dolakha districts.

8) Urban/Rural municipality population:

In the 2078 census, the population of municipalities is 66.17 percent, while the population of rural municipalities is 33.83 percent. After the federal structure, based on the classification of the local level into municipalities and rural villages, when the population of 2068 was adjusted, the population of municipalities was 63.19 percent and the population of rural villages was 36.81 percent. In the last census of 2068, the gender ratio of the municipal area was 95.89, but according to the results of 2078, it remained at 96.06, while in the rural municipality area, it increased from 91.27 in the last census to 94.68.


Census Year

Population Percentage

Gender Ratio

Urban Municipalities




Rural Municipalities




Urban Municipalities




Rural Municipalities




9) Districts with the highest and lowest Population:

According to the results, Kathmandu district has the highest population of 20,41,587 people and Manang district has the lowest population of 5,658 people among the 77 districts of the country. Morang, Rupandehi, Jhapa and Sunsari districts are the second, third, fourth and fifth most populous districts respectively. Mustang, Dolpa, Rasuwa and Humla are in the second, third, fourth and fifth places respectively.

10) Population by ecological belt:

According to the National Census 2078, 53.61 percent of the total population is in Terai (1,56,34,006 people), 40.31 percent (1,17,57,624 people) in the hills and 6.08 percent (17,72,948) in the Himalayas. people) population, which was 50.27 percent (1,33,18,705 people) in Terai, 43.01 percent (1,13,94,007 people) in hills and 6.01 percent in Himalayan region in 2068. It was 73 percent (17,81,792 people).

11) Population by province:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, looking at the distribution of population by province, the highest population is in Bagmati Province at 20.97 percent and the lowest is at 5.79 percent in Karnali Province. It was 20.87 and 5.93 percent respectively in the 2068 census. Likewise, Madhesh province has the second largest population. In terms of population size in 2078, the third, fourth, fifth and sixth provinces are Koshi, Lumbini, Sudurpaschim and Gandaki respectively.

12) Number of building structures by main use:

In the National Census 2078, the details of all the houses across the country have been collected according to the main use. Based on what the majority of the house was used for, the main use is classified into 12 (twelve) different types. According to the results of the census, there are a total of 75,52,066 house structures in the country, of which 71.7 percent are mainly used for housing. Goth/dhansar/matan 10.1 percent, vacant house 6.3 percent, other (eg: kitchen house) 5.9 percent, business 3.1 percent, educational 1.1 percent, industry/factory and institutional and government 0.4 / 0.4 percent, hotels and lodges 0.3 percent, healthcare 0.2 percent and banks and financial institutions 0.1 percent. Provincially, the highest is 75.0 percent in Lumbini Province and the lowest is 68.0 in Sudurpaschim Province. Percent houses are mainly used for housing.

Main Use

Number of Structures








Vacant House





















Hotels and Lodges






Banks and Financial



13) Ownership of house/housing unit:

Out of a total of 66,60,841 families owning a house that is being used as a residence, 86.0 percent of the families are living in their own house while 12.8 percent of the families are living in a rented residential unit. In the last census of 2068, this value was 85.3 percent and 12.8 percent respectively. According to the current calculations, 0.6 percent of families are living in institutional units and 0.7 percent of families are living in other types of ownership units.

14) Main source of drinking water:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, 57.0 percent of the total 66,60,841 families live from taps/pipes (including inside and outside the premises), 29.8 percent from tube wells/hand pumps, 1.5 percent from covered wells/wells, 3. 9 percent mainly use drinking water from the main stream and 4.6 percent from jars/bottles. 2.1 percent of households using water from open well/well, 0.4 percent of households using drinking water from river/stream. In the National Census 2068, out of a total of 54 lakh 23 thousand 297 families, 47.8 percent of the families mainly used water from taps/pipes (including inside and outside the premises) and 35.1 percent from tube wells/hand pumps.

15) Main source of cooking fuel:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, more than half (51 percent) of the total families in the country often use wood/firewood for cooking. The percentage of families that often use LP gas, electricity, Guitha-Gorha, biogas, kerosene and other fuels for cooking is 44.3, 0.5, 2.9, 1.2, 0.05 and 0.1 respectively. According to the National Census 2068, 64.0 percent often used firewood for cooking.

Cooking Fuel

Percentage of Families



LP gas










Other fuels


16) Main source of lighting:

According to the National Census 2078, most of the households often use electricity to light the lights in their houses/residential units. In the last census, the number of households using electricity was 67.3 percent, but now that share has increased significantly and reached 92.2 percent.

6.6, 0.6, and 0.6 percent of the families who often use solar/solar energy, kerosene, and other fuels to light their lights. In 2068, 18.3, 7.4 and 6.1 percent of the families that often use kerosene, solar and other fuels to light their lights were respectively.

17) Household assets/amenities:

According to the results obtained from the National Census 2078, 3.88 percent of the families did not have any of the tools and facilities asked in the census, while 96.12 percent of the families found that at least one type of facility was available. The percentage of families with ordinary mobile phones is 73.15 percent, followed by 72.94 percent of families with smart mobile phones. Television is available in 49.37 percent of the total families, internet facility in 37.72 percent, bicycle in 35.21 percent.

Household Asset/Amenity

Percentage of Families

No assets/facilities


Ordinary mobile phone


Smart mobile phone




Internet facility





18) Toilet facility:

Out of the 66,60,841 individual families counted in the National Census 2078, 95.5 percent of the families use some type of toilet, while 4.5 percent of the families still do not have access to the toilet. In the last census in 2068, there were 38.2 percent of families without access to toilets.

19) Female ownership in house & land:

According to the results of the 2078 census, a total of 23.8 percent of families have houses or land or both in the name of women. In the family, 11.8 percent of women own both house and land, which is 1.1 percentage points higher than in 2068.

20) Number of households operating small-scale enterprises other than agriculture:

According to the results of the census, there are 6,27,887 (9.4%) families operating small household businesses other than agriculture that are not registered with any government agency and do not have a single salaried worker. Out of the total number of families operating such small household businesses, household industries are 1,37,644 (21.9 %), trade/business 3,10,651 (49.5 %), transport 34,656 (5.5 %), services 69 ,177 (11.0%) and 75,559 (12.0%) are families operating other types of businesses. Among the mentioned small household businesses, 55.0 percent are mainly operated by men and 45.0 percent are operated by women. Similarly, out of the total number of small domestic businesses, Bagmati Province has the highest number of 1,53,522 (24.5%) families and Karnali Province has the lowest number of 32,463 (5.2%) families.

Type of Small Household Businesses

Number of Families

Percentage of Total Families

Household Industries












Other Types of Businesses







Gender of Small Household Business Owners

Percentage of Total Families








21) Absentee Abroad:

According to National Census 2078, out of total 15 lakh 55 thousand 961 families, 21 lakh 90 thousand 592 people are absent from the family and often live abroad, of which 17,99,675 (82.2 percent) are male and 3,90,917 (female) 17.8 percent) are. According to the 2068 census, 19 lakh 21 thousand 494 people were absent from their families and often lived abroad.

22) Number of Households with deaths in the last 12 months preceding the census and number of deaths reported:

According to the National Census 2078, out of a total of 66,60,841 families, 1,92,178 families had at least one person die during the twelve months preceding the census day. A total of 1,98,463 people died in the mentioned 1,92,178 families in which 57.9 percent were males and 42.1 percent were females. Among the dead, a total of 1,32,608 people died in the municipal area and 65,855 people died in the rural municipality area.

23) Female household head:

Out of the total 6,666,937 families counted in the National Census 2078, 31.55 percent of the family members are women, which is 5.82 percentage points higher than in 2068.

24) Marital status:

According to the results, 33.1 percent of the total population aged 10 years or more are unmarried, of which 38.2 percent are males and 28.4 percent are females. Similarly, 61.8 percent of people aged 10 years or more are currently married. Currently married men and women are 59.1 and 64.3 percent of their total population respectively.

25) Age at first marriage:

The results of the National Census 2078 showed that most people (34.4 percent) had their first marriage between the ages of 18 and 20. Second, 22.3 percent of people who get married for the first time between the ages of 15 and 17 are 22.3 percent. 0.3 percent of people who had their first marriage under the age of ten. Likewise, 7 percent of those who get married for the first time at the age of 10-14 years. Overall, the average age of first marriage is 19 years, of which 21 years for men and 18 years for women.

Age at First Marriage

Percentage of Total Population

Under 10 years


10-14 years


15-17 years


18-20 years


Average Age

19 years

- Men

21 years

- Women

18 years

26) Disability:

According to the results of the 2078 National Census, 2.2 percent of the total population has some form of disability. Among disabled people, 54.2 percent are men and 45.8 percent are women. In the 2068 census, 1.94 percent of the total population had one or more types of disabilities.

27) Literacy Rate:

The literacy rate of the country's total population aged 5 years or more is 76.3 percent. Male literacy rate is 83.6 percent while female literacy rate is 69.4 percent. In the previous census of 2068, total literacy rate was 65.9 percent, male literacy rate was 75.1 percent and female literacy rate was 57.4 percent.

28) Education level completed:

According to the National Census 2078, the highest i.e. 28.7 percent of the total literate population have passed the primary level (classes 1 to 5). 19.9 percent of people who have passed the lower secondary level (class 6 to 8) are in the second place. People who pass only SLC or equivalent are 9.5 percent of the total literate population. Similarly, 19.5 percent of those who passed higher than SLC. 1.8 percent of people who have acquired informal education.

Education Level

Percentage of Total Literate Population

Primary Level


Lower Secondary


SLC or Equivalent


Higher than SLC


Informal Education


29) Population by place of birth:

According to the National Census 2078, there are 69.0 percent of people whose birthplace and current residence are in the same rural municipality or municipality. Out of which 78.3 percent are men and 60 percent are women. 9 percent of the total population was born in another rural municipality or municipality of the respective district, 19.5 percent of the population was born in another district and 2.5 percent was born abroad.

Birthplace and Current Residence

Percentage of Total Population

Same Rural Municipality/ Municipality


- Men


- Women


Another Rural Municipality/ Municipality within Same District


Another District


Born Abroad


30) Population by former place of residence for current migration:

 According to the census, there are 68.0 percent of people who have never settled in another place from the rural municipality or municipality where they currently live, of which 77.0 percent are men and 59.4 percent are women. 10.8 percent of the total population had their previous residence in another rural municipality or municipality of the respective district, 18.2 percent of the population had their previous residence in another district and 3.1 percent had their previous residence abroad.

31) Population at the current place of residence by duration of last migration:

According to the census, based on the period of last migration, out of a total of 93,41,408 people who migrated, the maximum period of 31.8 percent of the people last migrated was 10-24 years, while the lowest period of migration was 3.5 percent. It is less than 1 year. 4.0 percent of people whose last migration period is more than 50 years. Likewise, in terms of gender, 29.1 percent of males and 33.3 percent of females last migrated for a period of 10-24 years.

32) Reasons for current migration:

38.2 percent of the main reason for coming to the place counted from the previous place of residence is marriage. Other reasons for coming to the current place of residence are work/employment 15.2 percent, trade/business 2.8 percent, study/training 7.8 percent, dependent 19.5 percent, natural disaster 0.7 percent, agriculture 3.9 percent, 4.1 percent returned home and 6.6 percent others. 30.6 percent of males who migrated are due to work/employment and 58.2 percent of females are due to marriage.

33) Fertility Status:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, 12 percent of married women aged 15-49 (61,45,039 people) have not given birth to any live children at the time of the census, while the number of women who have given birth to 2 live children is the highest at 33 percent. At the time of enumeration, 23.1 percent of married women who gave birth to only one living child were 0.1 percent of women who gave birth to 9 or more living children. A total of 61,45,039 married women aged 15-49 have given birth to 1,27,99,969 children so far. Out of which 52.7 percent are sons and 47.3 percent are daughters. 3.2 percent of the total live births were deaths. Among the children who died, 57.6 percent were sons and 42.4 percent were daughters.

34) Current Fertility Status:

According to National Census 2078, a total of 4 lakh 12 thousand 935 children were born during the 12 months before the date of enumeration, of which 2 lakh 18 thousand 74 or 52.8 percent were sons and 194 thousand 861 or 47.2 percent were daughters. was born Among the children born within 1 year, 36.8 percent of the children were born to women aged 20-24 years.

35) Maternal mortality:

According to the results of the National Census, 2078, 653 (five percent) deaths among the total reproductive age group (12,976 women aged 15-49 years) in the reference period (12 months prior to the date of enumeration) were related to pregnancy. Health and According to the Verbal Autopsy conducted in collaboration with the Ministry of Population, 622 (95 percent) of the deaths related to pregnancy were related to maternal deaths. During this period, a total of 4,12,935 live babies were born in this age group. The results showed that the maternal mortality rate was 151 (per lakh live births).

36) Status of living arrangement of children:

Out of a total of 98 lakh 69 thousand 583 children under the age of eighteen, 77.9 percent of the children live with both parents. 17.1 percent of children live with their mother, 1 percent of children live with their father, and 3 percent of children live with other relatives.

37) Duration of economic activities performed:

According to the National Census 2078, out of 2,39,58,868 people aged 10 years and above, 1,49,83,310 people have done some kind of economic work during the 12 months before the census, of which 41.0 percent have worked for 6 months or more. 21.5 percent worked for less than 6 months and 37.5 percent did not do any financial work.

38) Economic Activities:

Economically Active Population: Out of 2,39,58,868 persons aged 10 years and above, 1,56,89,777 (65.5 per cent) are economically active and 82,11,012 (34.3 percent) are economically active. There are 58,079 people who are economically inactive, while the number of people who are not economically active or inactive is 58,079.

Frequently Economically Active Population: 1,56,89,777 economically active persons aged 10 years and above 1,10,38,105 (70.35 per cent) are frequently economically active and 46,51,672 (29.65 percent) are economically active. percent) are often economically inactive.

Frequently Employed Population: 1,10,38,105 persons aged 10 years and above of frequently economically active persons 1,02,70,447 (93.05 percent) frequently employed and 7,67,658 (6.95 percent) are often unemployed.

39) Economically active population by main occupation:

According to the results of the census, the economic work done by people aged 10 years or more has been presented according to the Nepalese occupational classification. Out of the total population of 1,49,83,310 who worked economically, 52.6 percent were male and 47.4 percent were female. Skilled workers in agriculture, forestry and fisheries are 50.1 percent of the economically employed population. After this, there are 23.0 percent of general or primary occupation workers, 5.8 percent of service and goods sales workers, 5.6 percent of crafts and Kaligarh and related trade workers, and 5.1 percent of managers.

40) Economically active population by main industry:

According to the results of the census, the economic work done by people aged 10 years or more has been classified according to the industrial sector of Nepal. Out of 1,49,83,310 engaged in economic work, the highest number is 57.3 percent in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. After this, 12.5 percent of the population is involved in wholesale and retail trade, motor vehicle and motorcycle repair, 8.1 percent in construction, 3.9 percent in other service activities, and 3.8 percent in industrial production.

41) Economically active population by employment status:

According to the National Census 2078, there are a total of 1 crore 49 lakh 83 thousand 3 hundred 10 people who have done economic work in the previous 12 months. Most of them are 55.3 percent who work for themselves, 28.6 percent who work for others, only 14.5 percent who help in the family, 1.4 percent who are employers and 0.1 percent who are not mentioned.

42) Economically active population by institutional sector:

According to the National Census 2078, the number of people who worked economically in the previous 12 months, according to the institutional sector of economic work, 61.8 percent worked in the household sector, 32.7 percent in non-financial institutions, 3.9 percent in government, and 1.1 percent in financial institutions. Non-profit organizations are 0.4 percent and not mentioned are 0.1 percent.

43) Reasons for not being economically active:

Among the people aged ten years or more who do not have any income or not, 46.9 percent of them do not work because they are students. After that, the other reasons are house keeping 21.9 percent, old age 11.0 percent, family care 7.5 percent, other 7.4 percent, disabled/sick 2.5 percent, pension/interest 2.2 percent and social work/volunteering. It is 0.3 percent.

44) Birth registration status of children:

According to the results of the National Census 2078, out of a total of 3,707,648 children aged 5 years or less, 74.0 percent have registered their births, while 26 percent have not. Similarly, the number of registered births is 81.9 percent in the Himalayas, 73.1 percent in the hills and 73.7 percent in the Terai, while the highest number of births is in Karnali Province at 87.3 and the lowest in Bagmati Province at 67 percent.

Download / View Nepal Census 2078 Result.PDF

By: Abujar Habib || Posted On: 2024-02-07 21:16:24

Dear Sir, The total literacy rate of Nepal, as recorded by you in point no. 27, stands at 76.3%. In point no. 28, after distributing the total number of literate population across different levels of education, when we compute from your table: 28.7% + 19.9% + 9.5% + 19.5% + 1.8% = 79.4%, how does the total literate population exceed the literacy rate? Is there any specific reason for this discrepancy?