There are 4 levels of language skills i. listening (hearing) ii. speaking (reading) iii. reading iv. Writing: Reading is the third skill of language teaching. Human is a social animal, they live in society and use language to convey their thoughts to each other, either they speak and listen or read and write in their mother tongue. To read means to acquire meaning by reading. It is necessary to contemplate and meditate on understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. It is absolutely true that contemplation and thinking can be expressed through reading skills, it is necessary to develop reading skills in the child so that they can understand and understand by reading the thoughts of various philosophers, thinkers, and social workers.
Children acquire most of the ideas by reading and on that basis form various theories. The meaning of thoughts and feelings is understandable only through reading. The child acquires meaning only by reading and acquiring thinking skills. Permanent knowledge is obtained by reading rather than by listening.
Meaning of Reading: Reading means taking the meaning of the written material while reading it, then fixing one's intention (thinking, thoughts) on it, and then behaving accordingly. That is, reading a written language keeping in mind the meaning and feeling is called reading skill.
Reading skill is called reading skill in the English language. Two words are used in Hindi for the word reading in English language, reading and reading. But there is a fundamental difference between reading and reading. Reading means reading aloud and silently so that the material being read is understandable. Reading includes aloud and silent reading.
Readings include the following:
- Recognize by looking at the symbol of sound.
- Forming words using squares.
- Reading by dividing words into meaningful units.
- Explaining the ideas of the material read.
- Fix your point of view on the material read.
Objectives of Reading Skills:
- Recognize and read all the letters of the alphabet.
- Getting students to practice reading at a fast pace.
- To develop the habit of self-study.
- Awakening confidence.
- To inculcate concentration, readiness, and interest in the students.
- To be able to read with the proper gesture.
- Activating the visual senses.
- To develop the ability to clearly understand the sentiments of the writer.
Methods of Reading Skills:
- character pronunciation method
- letter understanding method
- sound equilibrium method
- look and say method
- simulation method
Methods of Teaching Reading:
- character method
- word method
- sentence method
- acoustic method
- rhyme method
- The associative/consistency method.
- combined method
- In the Varna method, the teacher pronounces each letter by writing it on the blackboard.
- Students look at the shape of the letter written on the blackboard or published in the book and imitate the teacher to pronounce the letter.
- In this, the students get the knowledge of the classes sequentially. In this method, first vowels, then consonants, then quantities and words are taught to read.
- In this method children are introduced to words from the very beginning.
- After this the knowledge of the classes existing in that word is made.
- To get knowledge of words, pictures are taken with the help of pictures, the teacher shows the picture, gets the name written under the picture to be pronounced and the students imitate it.
- In this method, knowledge of vowels and consonants is given in a systematic manner.
- It is a psychological, fascinating, and interesting method.
- In this method, the teaching formulas like 'from whole to part', 'from known to unknown' and 'from easy to difficult' etc.
- The sentence method is an extension of the word method. In this, the reading begins with a sentence. In this, the teacher presents the sentence by writing it on the chart.
- The teacher reads the sentence and the students follow it.
- By reading the sentences over and over again, students become familiar with the words. Then put the words used in the sentence in a different order in front of the children; For example, this is my house. This house is mine. This is my house etc.
- In the sound analogy method, only those words are placed in front of the children whose sounds are similar. Similar sounding words are taught together. For example, tomorrow, move, deceit, moment, fruit, tap, force, plow etc.
- In this method, by repeating the same letter repeatedly, the sounds get practiced enough.
- Children have a natural interest in music. Keeping this in mind, the poetry method was developed. Its process is similar to the story method.
- In this method, instead of a story, there is a poem with simple sentences. Children are made to sing poetry.
- Children gradually begin to recognize words and letters. After this, the knowledge of classes is given in sequence.
Associative / Consistency Method:
- The associative method is used in Montessori.
- In this method, pictures of objects coming within the child's experience range are kept in the room or hung on the wall etc.
- Children establish associations with the names written under the pictures and the names on the cards.
- The teacher identifies the children by pronouncing these words or letters. Children learn to read by being active in play and play.
None of the above methods is completely fault free. Therefore, in whatever method, whatever good things happen, they should be accepted. The part which can be taught properly should be taught in that way. This mixed form is called the combined method.
For example, to identify letters by look and tell method, to teach to read letters by making many words from one letter by the phonetic method, by story method or sentence method can be taught to read sentences.
Assessment of Reading Skills:
- Can the student read and recognize all the squares of the alphabet?
- Can the student form words by matching letters?
- Is the student able to read the sentences properly?
- Can the student recite the poem with proper rhythm?
- Is the student able to read all the disciplines appropriately?
- Can the student interpret the reading material?
- Does the student understand the meaning in the context of idioms, proverbs and aphorisms?
- Can the student read with clear and precise pronunciation?
- Does the student read with gestures, ascents and stresses?
- Can the student study with concentration?
- Can the student read with due attention to yeti, speed, punctuation marks, etc.?
- Does the student understand the central sense of the piece read?
- Can the student control the speech to suit the audience and occasion?
- Can the student select facts, feelings and ideas from the material read?
- Can the student summarize the material read?
- Can the student answer the questions asked from the reading material?
- Can the student draw conclusions from the read material?