Padmashree College
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Kija Puja in Newar Community: Celebrating the Brother-Sister Bond

Event 15 Nov 2023 788 0

Kija Puja

Kija Puja in Newar Community: Celebrating the Brother-Sister Bond


Kija Puja, an integral part of the Newar community in Nepal, symbolizes the deep-rooted respect and love between brothers and sisters. This festival, deeply embedded in Newari culture, not only showcases the strength of familial bonds but also reflects the rich tapestry of Nepalese traditions.

Understanding Kija Puja

Understanding Kija Puja requires delving into its cultural, historical, and ritualistic aspects, especially as it plays a vital role in the Newar community of Nepal. Here's an overview to deepen your understanding:

Historical and Cultural Context

  • Origin and Evolution: Kija Puja, also known as Bhai Tika, is rooted in ancient traditions and myths of the Newar community, a major ethnic group in Nepal. Over time, it has evolved, incorporating various local customs and practices but has always retained its core essence of celebrating the brother-sister relationship.
  • Cultural Significance: This festival symbolizes the deep respect and love between siblings, particularly emphasizing the protective bond that brothers have for their sisters. It's a reflection of the strong family values inherent in Newar culture and Nepalese society at large.

Rituals and Celebrations

  • Preparation and Puja: The festival involves meticulous preparations, where sisters create a special space for the puja (ritual). They prepare traditional offerings, including sweets, fruits, and sacred items.
  • Tika Ceremony: A pivotal ritual is the application of the 'tika', a colorful mark made on the forehead. This comprises multi-colored powders and is believed to bring long life and prosperity to the brothers. It's a highly symbolic act, representing prayers and blessings.
  • Mala (Garland): Sisters often garland their brothers with a 'mala', traditionally made of marigolds, signifying the wish for their brothers' longevity and prosperity.
  • Special Feast: Sisters prepare a lavish meal for their brothers, featuring local delicacies. This meal is not just a culinary treat but a symbol of love and care.

Symbolism and Reflection

  • Mutual Respect and Protection: Kija Puja embodies the reciprocal nature of the sibling relationship. While sisters pray for their brothers' well-being, brothers, in turn, vow to protect their sisters.
  • Gift Exchange: The tradition of exchanging gifts further cements the bond, with brothers typically offering presents or money as a gesture of their commitment to safeguard and support their sisters.

Societal Impact

  • Strengthening Family Bonds: The festival is a yearly reminder of the importance of familial ties. It encourages siblings to take time out of their busy lives to reconnect and reaffirm their love and support for one another.
  • Cultural Preservation: In a rapidly modernizing world, Kija Puja is a vibrant reminder of the rich traditions and cultural practices of the Newar community. Celebrating it helps keep these traditions alive and relevant.

Modern Interpretations

  • While deeply traditional, Kija Puja has adapted to modern times, with celebrations now often including digital communications for siblings living far apart, proving its resilience and adaptability in maintaining familial bonds across distances.

Celebrating Kija Puja

Celebrating Kija Puja, a significant festival in the Newar community of Nepal, is an elaborate and joyous affair, deeply rooted in cultural traditions and familial love. Here’s a closer look at how this beautiful festival is celebrated:


  • Cleaning and Decorating: Homes are cleaned and decorated, often with flowers and traditional Nepalese artwork, to create a festive and welcoming atmosphere.
  • Preparing the Puja Area: A special area is designated for the puja (ritual). This space is usually adorned with a mixture of colors and materials, including flowers and handmade cloths.


  • Tika Ceremony: The centerpiece of Kija Puja is the tika ceremony. Sisters apply a multi-colored tika, a mixture of rice, yogurt, and vermilion, to their brothers' foreheads. This tika, more elaborate than the daily one used in Nepalese culture, is a symbol of protection and blessings.
  • Seven Colors of Tika: The tika in Kija Puja is unique as it consists of seven different colors. Each color represents a different prayer and blessing for the brother's life.
  • Lighting of the Diyo: Sisters light a special lamp known as 'diyo', which is supposed to burn throughout the night. This is believed to ward off evil spirits and bring good health and prosperity.

The Feast

  • Traditional Dishes: A vital part of the celebration is the feast prepared by the sisters for their brothers. This includes traditional Nepalese dishes, sweets, and delicacies, symbolizing the care and affection of the sister.
  • Eating Together: The siblings sit together to enjoy the feast, strengthening their bond and sharing memories and stories.

Exchange of Gifts

  • Gifts from Brothers: After the rituals, brothers give gifts to their sisters. These gifts are expressions of gratitude and a pledge of protection and care. They can range from clothes and jewelry to other tokens of affection.

Cultural Performances

  • Music and Dance: In many communities, Kija Puja is accompanied by cultural performances, including traditional Nepalese music and dance, adding to the festive atmosphere.
  • Community Gatherings: In some areas, community gatherings are organized where people come together to celebrate, enhancing the communal aspect of the festival.

Modern Celebrations

  • Virtual Celebrations: With the advent of technology, siblings living far apart often connect virtually to celebrate Kija Puja, ensuring that distance does not dampen the spirit of the festival.
  • Cultural Exhibitions: In urban areas and Nepalese diaspora communities, cultural exhibitions and public celebrations are organized to educate people about Kija Puja and to keep the traditions alive among younger generations.

The Impact on Brother-Sister Bond

The celebration of Kija Puja in the Newar community of Nepal has a profound impact on the brother-sister bond, strengthening familial ties and reinforcing cultural values. This festival, deeply embedded in tradition, plays a crucial role in nurturing and celebrating sibling relationships. Here's how Kija Puja influences this bond:

Reinforcement of Mutual Care and Protection

  • Symbol of Protection: The rituals of Kija Puja, especially the tika ceremony, symbolize the sister's prayers for her brother's long life and well-being, and the brother's vow to protect his sister. This ritual reinforces the idea of mutual care and protection that is central to the sibling relationship.
  • Pledge of Support: The exchange of gifts and promises during the festival serves as a reaffirmation of the siblings' commitment to support each other, both in times of joy and adversity.

Cultural and Emotional Connection

  • Shared Cultural Heritage: Participating in Kija Puja rituals helps siblings connect with their cultural roots. It's an opportunity for them to learn about and appreciate their heritage, further strengthening their bond through shared identity and history.
  • Emotional Bonding: The festival is a time for siblings to express their affection and appreciation for each other, often reminiscing about childhood memories and strengthening their emotional connection.

Social and Psychological Impact

  • Role in Socialization: Kija Puja plays a role in the socialization of young Newars, teaching them the importance of family, respect for siblings, and cultural traditions. It helps instill values of familial duty and affection from a young age.
  • Psychological Well-being: The festival contributes to the psychological well-being of individuals by fostering a sense of belonging and security. Knowing that there is a dedicated day to celebrate and strengthen the sibling bond can be emotionally uplifting and reassuring.

Adaptation and Modern Relevance

  • Adapting to Modern Lifestyles: In a modern and often dispersed world, Kija Puja has adapted to include virtual celebrations, allowing siblings separated by distance to still connect and celebrate together. This adaptability highlights the festival's relevance and resilience in maintaining family ties.
  • Inclusivity in Modern Times: The contemporary celebration of Kija Puja sometimes goes beyond biological ties, including friends and non-biological siblings, thus broadening the scope of the festival to encompass different forms of brother-sister relationships.

Long-Term Effects on Relationships

  • Strengthening Bonds Over Time: The annual celebration of Kija Puja serves as a constant reminder of the importance of the sibling relationship, helping to maintain and strengthen this bond over time.
  • Transmission of Cultural Values: The festival is also a means of transmitting cultural values and traditions to younger generations, ensuring that the significance of the sibling bond is recognized and celebrated by future generations.

In essence, Kija Puja is much more than a ceremonial event; it's a powerful expression of familial love and cultural identity. Its celebration has a lasting impact on the brother-sister bond, reinforcing it with layers of tradition, emotional depth, and mutual respect.


Kija Puja, much more than a mere festival, is a celebration of the unbreakable bond between siblings. It stands as a testament to the Newar community's cultural richness and their commitment to preserving familial bonds. Understanding and participating in such festivals allows us to appreciate the depth and beauty of Nepalese culture, reminding us of the universal values of love and family.

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